The tool describes nine possible types and forms of intervention that can be used to influence the behaviour of citizens and professionals prior to, during, and after a pandemic. Three conceptual tools are set out that are designed to help you consider which mix of interventions you will need to apply in a pandemic to influence the behaviour of citizens, and professionals. Two descriptive models are included and a matrix that allows you to identify nine possible intervention approaches that could make up your strategy.


This set of three conceptual tools has been developed to help those people who are responsible for planning pandemic communication programmes to consider what is the optimal mix of interventions that could be applied. The tool is based on reviews of pandemic communication planning and reviews of how to influence behaviour carried out as part of WP3. The tools map five ‘Types’ of intervention that can be used by public health organisations including: control measures, information provision, design solutions, education interventions, and the provision of support services such as immunisation. The second conceptual tool maps how these five types of intervention can be applied in four basic ways. This tool is based on understanding how both rational and non-rational strategies and how both rewards and sanctions can be used to influence behaviour.


These conceptual tools should be used ideally in the pre-preparation phase of any pandemic. The tools should be used, introduced, and managed by those responsible for developing communication and behavioural influence programmes. They help focus decision making. A facilitator should be appointed to lead planning teams through the use of the tools, to analyse existing types and forms of intervention that are in place. The tools can then be used to identify any gaps that exist in current plans and what information or research requirements might be necessary to inform decisions about the use of particular interventions. For example if it becomes clear form the matrix tool that no strategies are in place to address non-rational attitudes about the uptake of vaccine, the team can then discuss what research is needed to understand this view among particular population groups and what types of information or attitudinal influence could be used to address this gap.

This tool can be supplemented by the other thirteen tools developed by WP3 of ECOM, to develop a more systematic strategy for influencing behaviour prior to, during and after pandemic events. Ideally the tool should be used in conjunction with the ‘Setting up you plan’ tool and the ‘Specifying Objectives ‘ tool set out elsewhere on this site.